Implementing Fluent Wait in Selenium for Synchronization

By admin Feb 26, 2024

Creating software of the highest caliber in automated testing requires a seamless and dependable test execution process. Automation testers frequently struggle with synchronization or adjusting test script speed to match the dynamic behavior of web elements. 

Selenium, a well-known web automation tool, provides synchronization strategies to address this issue successfully. Fluent Wait is a very effective method for coordinating test actions with the status of web items. In this article, we examine the idea of Fluent Wait and how to use it to improve the stability and robustness of Test automation

Come along as we explore the possibilities of Fluent Wait in Selenium and go on a journey to master synchronization in automated testing.

Need of Synchronization

In computer science and concurrent programming, synchronization is necessary to ensure that several threads or processes work together and efficiently coordinate their actions. The following factors are the leading causes of the requirement for synchronization:

  1. Shared Resources

Threads and processes frequently share shared resources like memory, files, databases, and hardware devices in multi-threaded or multi-process systems. Multiple threads or processes using these shared resources simultaneously might cause race situations, unexpected behavior, and data corruption if adequate synchronization measures aren’t in place.

  1. Race Conditions

When the outcome of an algorithm depends on the way and order in which several threads or processes are interwoven, this condition is called a race condition. The occurrence of race conditions suddenly causes faulty outputs or unpredictable behavior as threads and processes run in an unexpected order. Race problems could be avoided further by synchronization methods such as locks, mutexes, and semaphores to ensure mutually exclusive access to shared resources.

  1. Data Consistency

Maintaining data consistency is essential to determining the integrity and dependability of multi-threaded applications. Synchronization techniques are used to protect data from alterations, maintaining data consistency through the setting of limitations for access and modification. To prevent inconsistent changes resulting from concurrent modifications, locks, and mutexes, for instance, guarantee that only one thread can alter a specific data structure at a time.

  1. Deadlocks

A deadlock happens when two or more threads or processes are stuck together forever while they wait for one another to release the resources they require to move forward. When synchronization primitives like locks are not obtained and released in a consistent and coordinated manner, deadlocks may result. Deadlocks can be avoided, and concurrent systems can remain operational by employing efficient synchronization techniques, such as preventing layered locking and putting deadlock detection and resolution mechanisms in place.

  1. Performance Optimization

Concurrency-related errors are avoided, and correctness is maintained by synchronization techniques, notwithstanding the overhead they cause from context switching, contention, and coordination among threads or processes. Developers can maximize the performance of concurrent applications while guaranteeing that they behave correctly and predictably by carefully planning and executing synchronization schemes.

What is Fluent Wait?

Fluent Wait is a concept in Selenium WebDriver that allows us to define the maximum time to wait for a particular condition to occur before throwing an exception. Fluent Wait offers greater freedom in creating wait conditions and polling intervals than implicit and explicit waits provide.

Benefits of Fluent Wait in Selenium:

  1. Flexibility

With Fluent Wait, you can easily adjust polling intervals and wait conditions to meet your unique needs. With Fluent Wait, developers may provide dynamic waiting conditions, such as waiting until a specific element becomes clickable or visible, in contrast to typical waits with set timeouts.

  1. Robustness

Automation scripts become more stable and reliable when Fluent Wait successfully synchronizes with dynamic elements. Parts of dynamic web applications frequently load asynchronously or exhibit unpredictable latency. To guarantee that automation scripts wait only as long as required for elements to become accessible, Fluent Wait dynamically modifies its polling intervals.

  1. Enhanced Debugging

Finding synchronization problems in Selenium scripts is made easier with Fluent Wait. Debugging synchronization issues with traditional waits can be difficult due to set timeouts and little flexibility over wait conditions. More insight into the synchronization process is provided by Fluent Wait, which enables developers to adjust wait settings and identify problems more precisely.

How to Implement Fluent Wait in Selenium?

To implement Fluent Wait in Selenium, adhere to the following steps:

  1. Importing Necessary Libraries

Importing the necessary classes from the Selenium library is the first step. You must import {WebDriverWait} from the `} module.


   from import WebDriverWait

   from import expected_conditions as EC


  1. Setting Up WebDriver

Launch a new WebDriver instance for the browser of your choice (e.g., Chrome, Firefox). As a result, Selenium will be able to communicate with the browser.


   from selenium import webdriver

   # Initialize the WebDriver for Chrome

   driver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path=’/path/to/chromedriver’)


  1. Using Fluent Wait with Expected Conditions

Using the `ExpectedConditions` class, specify the expected conditions that the WebDriver should wait for. These requirements may include clickability, presence, visibility, and more for elements.


   # Define the maximum time to wait

   wait = WebDriverWait(driver, 10)

   # Example of using Fluent Wait to wait until an element is clickable

   element = wait.until(EC.element_to_be_clickable((By.ID, ‘element_id’)))


This example commands `WebDriverWait` to be implemented with a maximum waiting time of 10 seconds. The `until` method of the `wait` object is called next, passing it an `EC.element_to_be_clickable`, the expected condition. This condition holds until the element’s state as being clickable is done; this will be represented by its ID (see readme/ for more).

Suppose you intend to use locator techniques like {By.ID} In your anticipated conditions, ensure you have also imported the required modules, such {By}, from `}.

These methods will let you integrate Fluent Wait into your Selenium scripts to manage synchronization problems and dynamic elements in web automation activities.

Customizing Fluent Wait Parameters

You can modify the following elements in Selenium to alter the Fluent Wait parameters:

Timeout Duration:

Give Selenium a maximum duration in seconds to wait for the required condition to be satisfied before raising a TimeoutException.

Polling Interval:

While you wait, determine how frequently Selenium should check for the anticipated situation. Although it may result in a higher system burden, a shorter polling interval might speed up response times.

Ignoring Specific Exceptions:

Specify which exceptions Selenium should not take into account while it waits. It can be helpful When handling sporadic problems you wish to ignore while you wait.

The following describes how to alter the Fluent Wait parameters:


from import WebDriverWait

from import expected_conditions as EC

from import By

from selenium import webdriver

# Initialize the WebDriver (e.g., Chrome)

driver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path=’/path/to/chromedriver’)

# Define the maximum wait time (in seconds)

timeout = 20

# Define the polling interval (in seconds)

polling_interval = 2

# Customize Fluent Wait parameters

wait = WebDriverWait(driver, timeout, poll_frequency=polling_interval, ignored_exceptions=[NoSuchElementException, ElementNotVisibleException])

# Example of using Fluent Wait with customized parameters

element = wait.until(EC.visibility_of_element_located((By.ID, ‘element_id’)))


In this example:

  • `timeout` specifies the maximum time Selenium should wait before throwing a TimeoutException (set to 20 seconds).
  • `polling_interval` determines how often Selenium checks for the expected condition while waiting (set to 2 seconds).
  • `ignored_exceptions` allows you to specify exceptions that Selenium should ignore during the wait period. It ensures that certain exceptions, such as NoSuchElementException or ElementNotVisibleException, do not interrupt the waiting process.

You may better adapt Fluent Wait to the needs and features of your online application by adjusting these parameters, which will also improve the dependability and effectiveness of your Selenium automation scripts.

Testers can improve testing efficiency and coverage across browser contexts by incorporating AI-powered test orchestration and execution platforms such as LambdaTest. LambdaTest and Selenium go hand in hand regarding automated web testing. LambdaTest provides a cloud-based testing platform, while Selenium is a popular open-source framework for writing automated tests. One crucial aspect of Selenium testing is handling waits effectively. This is where LambdaTest comes in with its features and tools to help you manage waits efficiently.

Best Practices for Using Fluent Wait

Best Practices for Using Fluent Wait in Selenium:

  1. Define Clear Expected Conditions

Clearly state what circumstances WebDriver should wait for before starting the test. Utilize the Selenium Expected Conditions ({element_to_be_clickable}, `visibility_of_element_located}, etc.) to make sure the wait is concentrated on particular activities or states of elements.

  1. Use Appropriate Timeout Values

Determine the right timeout value based on how your web application behaves. Keep in mind that setting timeouts that are too long could cause needless delays in the execution of the test. Alternatively, if elements take longer to load, too short timeouts could lead to false negatives.

  1. Adjust Polling Interval

You can adjust the polling interval depending on how responsive your application is and how long you expect items to take to display or change state. Test responsiveness may rise with a shorter polling period, but resource usage may also increase.

  1. Handle Expected Exceptions

Within the Fluent Wait block, gracefully handle expected exceptions. It guarantees that the test script won’t crash if the desired condition isn’t reached within the allotted timeout window.

  1. Encapsulate Fluent Wait Logic

To encourage code maintainability and reusability across test suites, encapsulate the Fluent Wait logic into reusable functions or methods. It enables you to make changes more effectively by abstracting the synchronization mechanism from test scripts.

  1. Combine with Explicit Waits

For more robust synchronization, think about combining Fluent Wait with explicit waits. While Fluent Wait offers more freedom in establishing custom criteria and polling intervals, Explicit Waits enable you to wait for specified circumstances on items.

  1. Monitor and Adjust

Over time, keep an eye on the dependability and performance of your test suites, and modify the Fluent Wait parameters as necessary. Wait for timeouts and intervals may need to be adjusted in response to application performance or behavior changes.

  1. Logging and Debugging

Logging systems should be placed to record diagnostic data, such as timeout and synchronization event details, while tests are running. It aids in improving test stability by optimizing wait settings and troubleshooting synchronization problems.


In conclusion, securing the consistency and dependability of automated testing procedures requires a mastery of synchronization using techniques such as Selenium’s Fluent Wait. Fluent Wait provides testers with improved debugging tools, flexibility, and robustness to help them efficiently synchronize test operations with dynamic web elements. Testers may reliably provide end users with high-quality software and a flawless user experience if they have mastered synchronization.

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